Treatment of ringworm
Coxiella burnetii colonizes the placenta and causes premature delivery, low birth weight, and abortion. Bovine tuberculosis is predominantly a respiratory disease affecting the lungs and associated lymph nodes. Infection is often subclinical, while clinical signs, when present, are not specifically distinctive of the disease. Symptoms may include physical weakness, anorexia, emaciation, enlargement of lymph nodes, and coughing, particularly in advanced cases of bovine tuberculosis. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus is a pneumovirus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family.
The vector becomes infected when it feeds on an infected animal and then the virus replicates until it reaches the density necessary for transmission to another susceptible animal. Cattle can be a reservoir for verotoxic E.
The Schmallenberg virus belongs to the Bunyaviridae family, genus Orthobunyaviridae and is closely related to Akabane, Aino, and Shamonda viruses. This virus was first identified in November 2011 in Germany. It was found in several samples coming from bovine and ovine hosts showing atypical symptoms, not characteristic of known diseases at the time. Within the European Union, there are no official programs in place; however, country-specific policies apply.
Leptospirosis occurs worldwide, and while the disease is typically reported in tropical climates, it can also be found in temperate climates during periods of rainfall. Leptospirosis most commonly affects pigs, cattle, and horses, and displays a variety of clinical effects ranging from mild infection to organ failure to death. IBR is caused by a herpes virus (BHV-1), which infects the respiratory tract, causing problems on these channels (tracheitis and rhinitis), fever, abortions and infertility. It can cause death when the disease spreads rapidly within a herd. IBR is transmitted by direct contact through respiratory, eye and genital secretions.
hardjo-bovis is also associated with persistent reproductive tract infections that can cause infertility in cattle. FMD is a highly contagious viral disease that affects all cloven-hoofed animals, and is widespread throughout the world. FMD cannot be differentiated clinically from other vesicular diseases such as swine vesicular disease (SVD).
Humans can develop a form of TSE known as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) by consuming food products that have been contaminated with BSE. Initiatives are in place to remove high-risk bovine tissue from the human food chain, and for products containing bovine proteins (cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, etc.), measures have been instituted to help ensure that raw materials are sourced from BSE-free regions. Clinical signs of TSEs are often subtle and may include nervousness, aggression, low head carriage, ataxia, tremors and increased sensitivity to touch (hyperesthesia). Animals may also have a reluctance to be milked and experience weight loss and diminished milk production.
Livestock mortality, treatment costs, abortion, reduced production, discarded milk, and reduced consumer confidence all contribute to the cost of Salmonella to cattle industries. Paratuberculosis in domestic livestock may entail significant economic losses due to several factors, such as reduced production, premature culling, and veterinary costs. In the United States, paratuberculosis is of growing concern to the cattle industry because the presence of the disease impacts international marketing of cattle and cattle products, which causes economic losses to producers.
Australia has a National Johneâ€™s Disease Control Program (NJDCP) that aims to reduce the spread and the impact of Johneâ€™s disease. It is a cooperative program involving Australian livestock industries, government, and the veterinary profession. Animal Health Australia manages the program on behalf of these key stakeholders. Paratuberculosis, also known as Johneâ€™s disease, is caused by the presence of Myobacterium avium spp.
TSEs are infectious diseases of the brain that affect animal species in various forms, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, affecting cattle), scrapie (affecting goats and sheep) and chronic wasting disease (CWD, affecting deer). The diseases are caused by altered prion proteins that are resistant to chemicals and heat, and are very difficult to decompose biologically, often surviving in soil for several years. Mycoplasmas-most of which are host-specific-cause chronic diseases that progress slowly in humans and animals.
When there are signs in cattle, the most common are hyperthermia, abortion towards the end of gestation (in the eighth month), edema (of the udders, teats, vulva, and hocks), and erythema (mucosa, teats, and udders). Seven or eight days after infection, sheep develop acute signs-high temperature, lethargy, and self-isolation from the herd. Shortly after the rise in temperature, the buccal mucosa becomes red and swollen, and large volumes of foamy saliva are produced. The tongue swells up and in some cases turns blue (hence the name of the disease).
In severe cases, the disease can lead to the animalâ€™s death. Typical clinical signs can include fever and severe watery diarrhea with subsequent rapid onset of dehydration. The diarrhea is usually putrid and may contain blood and mucus.
TSEs cause a slow degeneration of the central nervous system that ultimately leads to the death of an animal, and there is often a significant lapse of time between an animal becoming infected with the disease and displaying the first symptoms. As an example, at the point of infection, cattle may not show clinical symptoms for up to 6 years, and sheep may not show signs for up to 4 years. BCV is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family that causes intestinal and respiratory infections in ruminants worldwide. Infection can cause winter dysentery in adult animals, as well as calf enteritis and enzootic pneumonia complex in calves.
Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a notifiable disease (2012 OIE List) and is considered to have socio-economic implications for public health and, in particular, international trade in animals and products of animal origin. Brucellosis is a major public and animal health problem in many regions of the world. Although it rarely kills infected animals, considering the economic damage the disease can cause, brucellosis is one of the most serious livestock diseases worldwide.
paratuberculosis (sometimes abbreviated MAP) in the small intestine of ruminants. It is a worldwide animal health problem, especially affecting beef and dairy herds. Leptospirosis is considered to be zoonotic, and can be transmitted to humans if a person comes in contact with water or soil that has been contaminated by urine or body fluids of an infected animal.