When we eat such things as bread, meat, and vegetables, they are not in a form that the body can use as nourishment. Our food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before they can be absorbed into the blood and carried to cells throughout the body.
The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are essential for digestion. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, the liver produces bile that helps the body absorb fat, and the gallbladder stores the bile until it is needed. The enzymes and bile travel through special channels called ducts and into the small intestine where they help break down the food. Further up the pits, parietal cells produce gastric acid and a vital substance, intrinsic factor.
The glands of the cardia and pylorus are composed primarily of mucus-secreting cells. Cells that make up the pyloric antrum secrete mucus and a number of hormones, including the majority of the stimulatory hormone, gastrin.
The pH sensitivity and other parameters of these currents are distinctly altered after experimental induction of gastric ulcers (38). Genetic deletion of TRPV1 reduces the responsiveness of jejunal afferent neurons to acid and distension, similar effects being seen with the TRPV1 blocker capsazepine (32). The mechanosensitivity of muscular/mucosal afferents from the mouse colon is likewise reduced in TRPV1 knockout mice (17), and pharmacologic blockade of TRPV1 attenuates the visceromotor pain response to intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid (13). Clinically, it is well established that ischemia can be painful, and this is also true for colonic ischemia and ischemic colitis which are typically associated with abdominal pain (36). Transient clamping of mesenteric blood vessels in the anesthetized rat likewise gives rise to pseudoaffective blood pressure reactions indicative of pain (16).
This is when a gallstone blocks either the common bile duct or the duct leading into it from the gallbladder. This condition causes severe pain in the right upper abdomen and sometimes through to the upper back. It is described by many doctors as the most severe pain in existence, between childbirth and a heart attack.
Anyone with unexplained digestive problems or with symptoms that may be related to stomach acid should visit a doctor. In acid reflux and GERD, acidic stomach contents move up from the stomach into the esophagus. Celery juice contains enzymes that, when taken on an empty stomach, can help increase HCL production.
As food travels through the digestive system it is broken down, sorted, and reprocessed before being circulated around the body to nourish and replace cells and supply energy to our muscles. Powerful hydrochloric acid in the stomach helps break down the bolus into a liquid called chyme.
The smooth muscles of the tubular digestive organs move the food efficiently along as it is broken down into absorb-able atoms and molecules. During absorption, the nutrients that come from food (such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals) pass through the wall of the small intestine and into the bloodstream and lymph. In this way nutrients can be distributed throughout the rest of the body. In the large intestine there is re absorption of water and absorption of some minerals as feces are formed.
The duodenum initially enhances gastric secretion, but soon inhibits it. The stretching of the duodenum accentuates vagal reflexes that stimulate the stomach, and peptides and amino acids in the chyme stimulate the G cells of the duodenum to secrete more gastrin, which further stimulates the stomach. The newly arrived chyme also stimulates enteroendocrine cells of the intestine to release compounds that stimulate the pancreas and gall bladder, while also suppressing gastric secretion and motility to allow the duodenum to process the chyme before receiving more from the stomach. Stretching of the duodenum (the first segment of the small intestine ) enhances gastric function via the vagal nerve, as the chyme causes the secretion of gastrin, which stimulates the stomach. Ingested food stimulates gastric activity by stretching the stomach and raising the pH of its contents; this causes a cascade of events that leads to the release of hydrochloric acid by the parietal cells that lower the pH and break apart the food.
Before food arrives, the stomach normally has a pH between 5.0 and 6.0. In young and healthy adults it takes about 45 minutes before enough acid is generated to drop the pH to 3.0.